All musical instruments including doumbek / darbuka are Haram in the Hanafi Madhab, except for the Duff, which is differed upon.
ثُمَّ قَالَ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ حَرَّمَ عَلَيَّ، أَوْ حُرِّمَ الْخَمْرُ، وَالْمَيْسِرُ، وَالْكُوبَةُ» قَالَ: «وَكُلُّ مُسْكِرٍ حَرَامٌ» قَالَ سُفْيَانُ: فَسَأَلْتُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ بَذِيمَةَ عَنِ الكُوبَةِ، قَالَ: الطَّبْلُ
(Sayidina Abdullah) Ibn Abbas (May Allah Most High be pleased with them both) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, ‘Indeed Allah (Most High) has prohibited wine, gambling, and the Kubah (instrument). And every intoxicant is prohibited.’ Sufyan (one of the narrators) said, I asked Ali bin Badhimah about the Kubah (instrument). He said, (it is) a drum. (Abu Dawood 3696, Sahih).
In the Hadith above there is a clear prohibition on the Kubah. There is some discussion amongst scholars regarding the meaning of this word. Many scholars said it refers to a drum. This is supported by the narration above, where one of the narrator’s sought clarification and was informed that it is a drum.
(وَالْكُوبَةَ) بِضَمِّ الْكَافِ وَسُكُونِ الْوَاوِ ثُمَّ بَاءٌ مُوَحَّدَةٌ، قِيلَ هِيَ الطَّبْلُ كَمَا رَوَاهُ الْبَيْهَقِيُّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، وَبَيْنَ أَنَّ هَذَا التَّفْسِيرَ مِنْ كَلَامِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ بَذِيمَةَ. (نيل الأوطار)
And al-Kubah is pronounced with a Dammah on the Kaaf and a Sukoon on the Waw and a Baa with one dot. It has been said that it is referring to a drum, as narrated by (Imam) al-Bayhaqi from the Hadith of (Sayidina) Ibn Abbas. He (Imam al-Bayhaqi) clarified that this explanation (al-Kubah refers to a drum) is from Ali bin Badhimah. (Imam al-Showkaani, Nayl al-Owtaar).
قال الشيخ: الميسر القمار، والكوبة يفسر بالطبل ويقال هو النرد ويدخل في معناه كل وتر ومزهر في نحو ذلك من الملاهي والغناء. (معالم السنن)
And the Shaykh said, al-Maysir is gambling, al-Kubah is explained as a drum. And it has been said it is al-Nard (backgammon). Every string and wind instrument is included (in the prohibition) of musical instruments and singing. (Imam Abu Sulayman al-Khataabi, Ma’alim al-Sunnah).
As we see from the Nusoos above, there is a difference of opinion regarding the meaning of the word al-Kubah. However, many scholars inclined towards the opinion that it is referring to a drum. Some scholars were more specific and described it as a drum that fits the description of a doumbek / darbuka .
(والكوبة) بِضَم الْكَاف وَفتح الْمُوَحدَة التَّحْتِيَّة طبل ضيق الْوسط وَاسع الطَّرفَيْنِ. (التيسير بشرح الجامع الصغير)
And al-Kubah is pronounced with a Dammah on the Kaaf and a Fathah on the letter with one dot underneath it (Baa). It refers to a drum that is narrow in the middle and broad at its two ends. (Imam Abd al-Ra’oof al-Munawi, al-Tayseer).
Imam al-Munawi also mentioned this description in his book Fayd al-Qadeer. Other scholars presented similar descriptions. Therefore we have an explicit Hadith prohibiting the doumbek / darbuka drum, this is consistent with the general rule in the Hanafi Madhab, in which all musical instruments are prohibited except the Duff.
الْمَلَاهِيَ كُلَّهَا حَرَامٌ
All instruments are prohibited. (Imam al-Zayla’i, Tabyeen).
If we did not have anything specific regarding the doumbek / darbuka it would still be Haram in the Hanafi Madhab, due to the general rule that all instruments other than the Duff are prohibited. The fact that we have specific Hadith for the doumbek / darbuka makes the prohibition clearer and stronger.
And Allah Most High Knows Best.
– Answered by Shaykh Noorud-deen Rashid (01.12.2021)
Is Music Haram?
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