When is it permitted to combine prayers in the Shafi’i Madhab?

ⓘ Supported by Al Medina 313.



Islamic Text

Praise be to Allah, and may His Peace and Blessings be upon our Master Muhammad , his nation of Muslims, his family and his Companions.

It is permitted to combine particular prayers in set circumstances.

Al-Bukhari (d. 256) reports that Anas b. Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said,

كانَ رَسولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّمَ إذَا ارْتَحَلَ قَبْلَ أنْ تَزِيغَ الشَّمْسُ، أخَّرَ الظُّهْرَ إلى وقْتِ العَصْرِ، ثُمَّ نَزَلَ فَجَمع بيْنَهُمَا، فإنْ زَاغَتِ الشَّمْسُ قَبْلَ أنْ يَرْتَحِلَ صَلَّى الظُّهْرَ ثُمَّ رَكِبَ 

“When the Messenger of Allah travelled prior to the sun moving from its zenith, he would delay Dhuhr to ‘Asr time, then he would descend and combine them. If the sun had moved before he embarked on his journey, he would pray Dhuhr and then mount. {Hadith no.: 1111}

Imam an-Nawawi (d. 676), may Allah have mercy on him, states in Minhaj’ut-Talibin,

يجوز الجمع بين الظهر والعصر تقديما وتأخيرا والمغرب والعشاء كذلكويجوز الجمع بالمطر تقديماوالثلج والبرد كالمطر إن ذابا

“It is permitted to combine Dhuhr and ‘Asr, by bringing one forward or delaying one, as well as Maghrib and ‘Isha’, in a long journey….. and it is permitted to combine due to rain, by bringing one forward… Snow and hail is similar to rain if they melt.” – [pg.130-131, Dar al-Minhaj, 2nd Edition, 2011]

It is evident from the above that combining between Dhuhr and ‘Asr, and similarly Maghrib and ‘Isha’, is permitted in the Shafi’ School on a long journey or in the case of rain. Similar to rain, our scholars have also permitted combining due to hail and snow.  It is important to note that there are certain parameters, which have not been mentioned here due to its length, for what validates combining in a long journey or for rain which must be fulfilled in order for the dispensation of combining  to be applied. 

These are the only cases where combining is allowed in the Shafi’ School.

There is an opinion which is not considered to be a position of the Shafi’ School, but is  held by a number of the Shafi’ scholars, including Imam an-Nawawi [d.676], that combining is also permitted in illness:

في مرضٍ قول قوي وجليواختاره حمد ويحيى النووي

In illness, there is an opinion that is strong and profound, Hamd and Yahya an-Nawawi adopted it. ” – Safwat az-Zubad, Ibn Raslan

Finally, there is also a position held by some Imams in the Shafi School, although this position again is not considered to be a position in the school, that combining in times a person is in need of doing so, is permitted. Some scholars who held this position stated that this is true only if the person does not make a habit of it. Imam an-Nawawi [d.676] states in Rawdat’ut-talibin,

وقَدْ حَكى الخَطّابِيُّ عَنِ القَفّالِ الكَبِيرِ الشّاشِيِّ، عَنْ أبِي إسْحاقَ المَرْوَزِيِّ جَوازَ الجَمْعِ فِي الحَضَرِ لِلْحاجَةِ مِن غَيْرِ اشْتِراطِ الخَوْفِ، والمَطَرِ، والمَرَضِ، وبِهِ قالَ ابْنُ المُنْذِرِ مِن أصْحابِنا. واللَّهُ أعْلَمُ

al-Khattabi reports on the authority of al-Qaffal al-Kabir al-Shashi, on the authority of Abu Ishaq al-Marwazi the permissibility of combining whilst remaining a resident for need, without the condition of fear or rain or illness. Ibn al-Munzir, a scholar from our Ashab, stated this opinion, as well.

And Allah knows best.

-Answered by Shaykh Mohammed Jamili, 9th Rajab 1444, Jeddah

See also:

Taking a Rukhsa

Is it permitted to combine prayers in the Shafi’i Madhab?

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